The Quran and Muslim Unity
Muslims are supposed to work together towards a common goal set by the Quran and shown by the Prophet (PBUH). They are brothers and sisters because they are bonded by the common ideology of the unity of God and the unity of humankind.
إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ
The Believers are but a single Brotherhood [Yusuf Ali]
This is the foundation of Islam. The Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) require Muslims to work for the unity of the Ummah.
The Quran is very clear about it:
وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّـهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا
And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allah (i.e. this Quran), and be not divided among yourselves. [Hilali & Khan]
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا لَّسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّـهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ
As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, thou hast no part in them in the least: their affair is with God. He will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did. (6:159) [Yusuf Ali]
وَلَا تَكُونُوا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ; مِنَ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا ۖ كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ
And be not ye among Mushrikeen (those who join gods with God), – i.e., those who split up their Religion, and become Sects, – each party rejoicing in that which is with itself! (30:31-32) [Yusuf Ali]
Muslims are required to be merciful towards each other (48:29) and be like the body where if any part hurts the whole body should feel the pain (Hadith). But, are we Muslims practicing this injunction of the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH)? Muslims and various Islamic organizations are working hard but it is frustratingly obvious that the above goals are ever so elusive. Instead of Muslims being united in mercy towards each other, they are, on the whole, far from it. Instead of feeling the pain and misery of Muslims suffering all kinds of oppression and tyranny, most of us are happily enjoying our material comforts of life.
Every day that passes brings more death and destruction to Muslims, only at a much wider scale. It is sad to see Muslim governments collaborating with non-Muslims to inflict damage and suffering against fellow Muslims. Many Muslim groups are also engaged in fighting against each other in many parts of the Muslim world. And in some countries where Muslims are in minority, their condition is even worse. As a minority they are systematically being subjected to discrimination, humiliation, persecution, torture, and rape. One wonders: is it ever going to end?
When Greeks attacked Turkey in 1921 (at the behest of the British) Iqbal’s heart started crying. He knew that it was not just an attack on Turkey, but it was an attack on Islam itself. He tried to free the Muslim mind from the prevailing colonial mentality and from Muslims’ own narrow self-interests. He wrote the poem “Tolu-e-Islam” which later became one of his classic works. [Copies of this poem were sold and all proceeds were sent to Turkey.] He said:
“Greed has torn apart humankind. You (Muslims), become role models of love and brotherhood. Get beyond the narrow boundaries of nationalities (like Indian, Khurasani, Afghani, and Turkish) and jump into the limitless ocean (of Islam).”
Observing the present situation in which Muslims find themselves today, Iqbal’s soul must be feeling extremely restless. Alas! There is no Iqbal today among Muslims who can guide the Muslim Ummah against the forces of evil that are bent on its destruction. But the Muslim Ummah can also be torn apart due to internal conflicts.
In fact, this is what is happening to Muslim Ummah today. Probably, there are no people in the world today who are as divided as Muslims. They are divided along religious, political, ethnic, cultural, racial, linguistic, and sectarian lines. These divisions extend further into subdivisions. Status, wealth, fame, and fortune have also created social differences among Muslims.
Muslims are divided at the root into Sunnis and Shias. Sunnis are further divided into Hanafi, Maliki, Shaafai, and Hanbali. Shias too are divided into Kesania, Zaidia, Imamia or Ithna ‘Ashari, Ismalia, etc. Sunnis are also divided into Ahle-hadith and Ahle-fiqha. In the Indian subcontinent (at least) Ahle-fiqha are further divided into Deobandis and Barelwis. Similar differences exist in other places as well. Are all these divisions and differences schools of thought as many Muslims claim? Whether or not we admit it, these differences and divisions do create physical, emotional, and psychological barriers amongst us. Iqbal says that these differences create prejudice in humans:
“These divisions are the branches of a sectarian tree; its fruit is prejudice. This is the fruit which gets Adam (man) expelled from Jannah (peaceful life).”
Although in North America we do try to work together (despite our religious differences) in a civilized manner, but our brothers and sisters back home are not that fortunate. There, these differences sometimes lead to violence and killings. Why is that despite clear warnings of the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) against it? Is it due to the prejudices that are the inevitable results of our divisions, as Iqbal mentions in the above poem?
With all these divisions and differences, can we progress in the world? Iqbal does not think so:
“Somewhere are religious divisions and somewhere are differences based on caste. Is this the way to prosper in the world?”
He further says:
“You are Syed; you are Mirza; you are Afghan. You are everything. Tell me, are you Muslim too?”
Here Iqbal uses the word “Syed” to represent the caste system that has penetrated Muslims (especially in the Indian subcontinent because of Hindu influence). He uses the word “Mirza” to represent the ruling elite and the word “Afghan” to represent the differences in Muslims based on region, language, and race.
All these differences are anti-Qur’anic. When Iqbal poses the question, “Tell me, are you Muslim too?” he implies that those who feel proud and superior compared to other fellow Muslims because of these labels attached to their names (and not because of Taqwa), they are not entitled to be called true Muslims.
Qur’an says that those who create differences in the Deen (Islam) are among the Mushrikun:
“Be not among the Mushrikun i.e., those who create differences in Deen (Isalm) and become sects. Each (sectarian) party quite content with itself (that it is following the correct path).” (30:32)
“And those who create division in Deen (Islam) and become divided into sects, O Prophet (PBUH)! You have no part in them in the least.” (6:159)
The Prophet (PBUH) is reported to have said:
“Anyone who gets even one feet away from the Ummah has taken out the Islamic yoke from his neck, even if he prays and fasts.”
That is why Qur’an calls upon all Muslims to be united and hold on steadfastly to the rope of Allah (i.e. Qur’an) and gives a stern warning to them not to create any divisions (3:103) amongst themselves.
If we look at the global picture as a whole, we find that the number of Muslims has grown steadily to more than 1.6 billion today. Muslims possess the richest resources of the world and the most fertile lands of the earth. In spite of this, how ironic that the most vulnerable and the most dependent people on earth are also Muslims.
Coming to the religious level, we find that the number of mosques is growing everywhere. The number of Muslims going to mosques is also increasing. The number of Muslims performing the annual pilgrimage increases every year, and in fact, has to be controlled to restrict the number. The number of Muslim organizations has been growing steadily. Whenever some differences arise among Muslims in one organization, they create another one and build another mosque. Noticing such an abundance of religious fervor among Muslims, Iqbal was led to say:
“Those with fervor in their faith built the mosque in one night, but the heart is sinful and did not prostrate in years.”
In spite of all the speeches and the sermons exhorting Muslims to unite, we see that the result is disappointing, to say the least. Why is that? The only way to diagnose this problem is to find the root cause according to Iqbal.
“O mankind! There has come to you a guidance from your Lord and a cure for the disease in your hearts.” (10:57)
Thus according to Qur’an, the disease of all our problems lies in our hearts and therefore, the cure should also begin there. Iqbal says:
“What can you accomplish by saying “la ilaha” with your tongue? If your heart is not a Muslim, then it is nothing.”
Iman must enter the depths of our hearts. Simply saying that I believe is not enough, according to the Quran (49:14).
The Qur’an says: “Among human beings are those who say ‘We believe in Allah and the Last day;’ but they are not among the Momins.” (2:8). “The Bedouins say, ‘We believe,’ (O Rasool) Say to them that you don’t believe, but you have accepted to surrender (to Islam) and Iman has not yet entered the depths of your hearts.” (49:14)
Also, Iman is not blind faith. The Qur’an clearly says that Iman becomes strong only with knowledge: “And that those on whom knowledge has been bestowed may know that (Qur’an) is the Truth from your Lord, so that they may believe in it and their hearts may be made humbly (open) to it.” (22:4)
Therefore, the heart must be kept humble and open, so that Iman acquired by the mind (knowledge) may enter the heart. Iman cannot enter those whose hearts have disease and those who have sealed and hardened their hearts (22:53).
Qur’an says the Momins have dignity and power over others: “If you are Momins, then you will have dominance and power” (3:139). And unbelievers will never be able to subdue and dominate Momins: “And never will We grant to the unbelievers victory and domination over Momins.” (4:141)
Obviously, if we as Muslims compare ourselves with these very clear verses of Qur’an, then we have to come to only one conclusion: that we are not among the Momins which the Qur’an talks about. Majority of our hearts are not open and humble. In fact, Qur’an tells us that instead of making the heart open and humble, there are some who let their emotions and ego control them. It says: “Have you seen the one who has taken his own emotions as his god.” (25:43)
Allama Iqbal has essentially translated this verse when he says:
“What is the benefit if you claim with your tongue in Tauheed (oneness of God)? You have made your emotion an idol and taken it as your god.”
How many of us (besides practicing the five pillars) are willing to go deep down in our hearts and honestly admit that we follow our emotions more often than we follow Allah (i.e. Book of Allah)? Allah demands total and complete surrender of our wills:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً
(2:208) “O you who believe! Enter in Islam completely.”
Therefore, the problems which we Muslims are facing today are the outward symptoms of the root cause, i.e., the internal friction in our hearts between obedience to Allah and obedience to our own emotions and egos. And it is this internal conflict that is referred to as the disease of the heart by the Qur’an. Iqbal too espouses this same theme of the Qur’an when he says:
“Batil (as opposed to Haq; the Truth) likes to compromise but Haq is uncompromising. Do not accept the middle ground between Haq and Batil.”
Therefore, as long as we Muslims keep compromising the TRUTH contained in the Quran, there is no hope for a cure of our collective mental, psychological, and emotional ills. We do not know how many psychological, emotional, and mental idols we carry all the time in our hearts and minds. Qur’an demands us to cleanse and purify our hearts from all kinds of Ilah. These subtle forms of shirk are addictive and like a slow poison have a deadening effect on our hearts and minds. Iqbal in his unique God given style says:
“The deadened heart is not a heart. Make it alive again. This is the only way to cure the age old diseases of nations.”
How to revive and resuscitate the dead heart; Iqbal says it is only possible through Qur’an:
“If you wish to live the life a Muslim, then it is not possible except to live by the Quran.”
‘Aisha (R) said: “The Prophet (PBUH) was a walking Quran.” Thus the Sunnah is to live by the Quran and not just read it for earning reward for the hereafter.
Iqbal says about our Sahaba (R):
“They had dignity and power in the world because of Islam. And you are suffering humiliation and defeat because you have left the Qur’an.”
And our Prophet (PBUH) will complain to Allah on the Day of Judgment:
وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ يَا رَبِّ إِنَّ قَوْمِي اتَّخَذُوا هَـٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ مَهْجُورًا
(25:30) And the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) will say: “O my Lord! Verily, my people deserted this Quran.”
Let us conclude with the following message of Iqbal:
“There is one common gain and one common loss for all Muslims. (Remember the Prophet’s hadith that all Muslims are like a body.) One Prophet (PBUH) for all and one Iman for all. One Ka’aba, one Allah and one Qur’an for all. How great it would be if Muslims were one too!”
Let us pray to Allah to unite our hearts in the path of Islam. It is Allah’s promise that if we do that, then we will regain our dignity, power, and glory (24:55). And Allah does not break His promise (2:80).